There are 2 independent origins of polled, one found in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds (Pf), the other in many European breeds of Celtic origin (Pc) such as Angus, Blonde d’Aquitaine, Dexter, Limousin, Charolais, and Hereford, among others. Polledness is dominant; a polled animal can have one or two copies of the gene. All offspring of a bull with 2 copies of polled (homozygous) will be polled. Genetic testing is a cost-effective means to determine if a polled animal has 1 or 2 copies of the gene. The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory offers a test for the polled gene to assist breeders in selecting cattle that have 2 copies of Polled gene. H/H HORNED- No copies of either Polled molecular marker are present. Pf/H POLLED- One copy of the Polled-Friesian molecular marker is present. At least 50% of the offspring will be polled.Pf/Pf POLLED. Two copies of the Polled-Friesian molecular marker are present. All offspring will be polled. Pc/H POLLED- One copy of the Polled-Celtic molecular marker is present. At least 50% of the offspring will be polled. Pc/Pc POLLED- Two copies of the Polled-Celtic molecular marker are present. All offspring will be polled. Pc/Pf POLLED- One copy of Polled-Celtic and 1 copy of Polled-Friesian molecular markers are present. All offspring will be polled.
PP = Homozygous Polled or True Polled
Pp = Heterozygous Polled or Polled
pp = Horned